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Thu 17 Mar 2016 19:00 @ Witte de With, Rotterdam 'TUNING – DETUNING/NOTING – DENOTING' WITH YANN GOURDON, RAFAËL ROZENDAAL, FLORIS VAN HOOF, JUSTIN BENNETT, REMCO VAN BLADEL AND OTHERS Moving back and forth between sound and scripture, this evening consists of experimental performances and short lectures, with a special focus on the visual sound renderings Charlemagne Palestine included in his exhibition 'GesammttkkunnsttMeshuggahhLaandtttt' at Witte de With Center for Contempory Art, Rotterdam.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Can the 'detuning' of music generate new ways of thinking about the relation between sound and scripture?
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


The notation of sound has a long and varied history, from Gregorian chants conducted following signs written in the air, to the standard notation of the Western music we know today and the possibilities offered by new computer technologies.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Next to this there will also be graphic works by students from the Graphic Design Department of ArtEZ University of the Arts, Arnhem.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


DE PLAYER – a production platform specialising in the relationship between sound, art, publishing and performance – presents works by artists within the frame of the project 'Pushing Scores', a project by DE PLAYER and Dutch graphic designer Remco van Bladel.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Focusing on the potential of graphic scores and the publishing of sound and image, we present Telcosystems alongside their recent publication 'Resonanz', a reading from 'Schematic as a Score' and a concert by Derek Holzer and a live performance by Julia Bünnagel with modified records.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


DE PLAYER will unveil its third issue of Tetra Gamma Circulaire (TGC) – the unknown audio magazine.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


TGC#3 is compiled in collaboration with students of the Piet Zwart Institute who undertake the Experimental Publishing programme, also known as XPUB.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


The first stop is at Pinkie Bowtie, Antwerp, where we will introduce the entity of TGC#3 as the an unknown music magazine that it is, while pointing out its specific features by demonstrating the floppy works that already reside in the collection.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


For the Pinkie Bowtie session we invited Antwerp-based artists to contribute to the project.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


So far Evelin Brosi, AMVK and JODI will show up to get informed about matters of relevance and will then start to produce their floppy work for the collection from there.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


The meeting is open for members of the public who are interested in experimental ways of publishing or who just like to hang out amongst the ambience of artistic ‘nouveauté’.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Fri 12 Jan 2018 20:30 @ Paradiso, Amsterdam 'PARA-PHONIC POLY-DISO' BY REMCO VAN BLADEL On this day the work 'Para-phonic Poly-diso' will be launched at The Small Museum of Paradiso, Amsterdam.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


This work, developed for The Small Museum project at Paradiso, is part of 'Pushing Scores' – a research project by DE PLAYER in connection with Remco van Bladel about the current state and potential of the 'graphical score'.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Thirteen of these scores will be on show on the billboards underneath Metrostation Maashaven.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


The entire music book will be performed three times during the South Explorer weekend.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Fri 22 Jun 2018 20:30 @ DE PLAYER, Rotterdam 'E-ARTHHA' WITH DOUGLAS KAHN, BJ NILSEN, AURÉLIE LIERMAN AND MAX FRANKLIN As you may well know, there are those evenings after which the sun rises differently.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


The 'E-ARTHHA' event is about the search for new interfaces and possibilities for sound composition, image and performance.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


In his lecture, Douglas Kahn discards old categories of sound and performance and replaces them with a new category of ‘energy’, which operates within the bigger narratives of ecology and other sensitivities.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


This project, which focuses on what we have come to refer to as the ‘graphic score’, has been running over the last two to three years.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


What are the possibilities of the graphic score in a day and age in which graphic notation is still commonly seen as 'drawing', merely serving as some kind of sheet music?
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Experimental Jetset (NL) Davide Mosconi (IT) DUPAC (INT) Studio Moniker (NL) Cold Void [Rafaël Rozendaal/Luuk Bouwman] (NL) Telcosystems (NL) Floris Vanhoof (BE) Rafaël Rozendaal (NL) Valentina Vuksic (CH) Ana Guedes (PT) Helga Jakobson (CAN) Niek Hilkmann (NL) Varia (NL) John Duncan (US) Johannes Kreidler (DE) Jörg Piringer (AT) BJ Nilsen (SE) Douglas Kahn (US) Aurélie Lierman (BE) Max Franklin (AU) Remco van Bladel (NL) Johannes Bergmark (SE) Hiele Martens (BE) Vaast Colson (BE) Peter Fengler (NL) Florian Cramer (DE/NL) Julia Bünnagel (DE) Derek Holzer (US) JODI (NL) Anne-Mie Van Kerckhoven (BE) Evelin Brosi (BE) Yann Goudron (FR) Charlemagne Palestine (BE) Matthieu Reijnoudt (NL) Willem de Haan (NL) Rowan van As (NL) Vos van der Noordt (NL) Julia Reinhold (NL) Students of XPUB at the Piet Zwart Institute, Rotterdam [Karina Dukalska, Max Franklin, Giulia de Giovanelli, Clàudia Giralt, Francisco González, Margreet Riphagen, Nadine Rotem-Stibbe and Kimmy Spreeuwenberg] Students of Artez Fine Arts and Graphic Design, Arnhem Students of Fontys Academie, Tilburg Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art, Rotterdam Pinkie Bowtie, Antwerp Art Rotterdam Paradiso, Amsterdam WORM, Rotterdam South Explorer, Rotterdam Technische Universiteit van Enschede
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Throughout 2016, 2017 and 2018, this project will research the phenomenon of notation and the graphic representation of music.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


It will unfold through a nomadic program that includes the creation of newly commissioned artworks and public events that address contemporary questions and issues pertinent in this particular field.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Graphic scores and notation have a long history dating back to the tenth century, when the Gregorian chants of the 'scola cantorum' were already being conducted through the writing of signs in the air.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Later on, this developed into the type of musical notation we are familiar with in Western music.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


In the early- to mid-twentieth century, the abstract developments in the visual arts played a vital role in fostering new approaches to the question of music notation and contemporary avant-garde music.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


This continues to question the representation of sound in media to this day.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


So what is the current state of the graphic score?
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Throughout the project, Jacques Attali’s book, 'Noise: The Political Economy of Music', will function as a reference and inspirational guide; pushing the score in search of its current potential.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


It will seek concepts and configurations that produce new, previously unknown, relationships in the field of sound, visual arts and performance.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Pushing Scores' is a project researching graphic notation, based on a desire to update this form of music and sound notation for the twenty-first century.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Starting from the motto ‘From Cage to JODI and beyond’, and from the avant-garde music and sound art of the twentieth century, the project researches new audio-visual languages, media and functions of graphic notation in a contemporary context characterised by a fundamental transformation of sound culture and visual culture.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


A number of specific themes will be initiated, developed and presented in the context of a public research programme in collaboration with artists, designers and various cultural organisations, such as the Piet Zwart Institute, the Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art and Sonic Acts.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


What are the possibilities of the graphic score, in a day and age in which graphic notation is still commonly seen as 'drawing', merely serving as some kind of sheet music?
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Based on our compilation of the most contemporary and innovative graphic notation practices in the fields of music, sound art, performance art, e-culture, new-media art, graphic design and media design, we will introduce artists and designers from various creative disciplines to a national and international audience, with the goal of collectively developing new forms of graphic notation.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


The incentive for this project is the belief that graphic notation in twentieth-century avant-garde music and sound art constitutes an important, still radically innovative but wrongfully marginalised form, which can play a key role in the development of new audiovisual languages and media.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


Our ambition, and that of our collaborating partners, is to emancipate graphic notation from the confines of the modernist tradition, in such a way that it may remain an innovative and provocative medium for decades to come.
└ from 01 — Pushing Scores Overview


TGC#3 is compiled in collaboration with students of the Piet Zwart Institute who undertake the Experimental Publishing programme, also known as XPUB.
└ from 02 — Release - Tetra Gamma Circulaire 3


Encased within a concrete body, an internal stand-alone WiFi station enables you to get in touch with the content of this floppy magazine.
└ from 02 — Release - Tetra Gamma Circulaire 3


DE PLAYER was asked by the XPUB programme of Piet Zwart Institute to do a seminar during a three-month period with their students.
└ from 02 — Release - Tetra Gamma Circulaire 3


We proposed to the students that they devise an issue of our publication Tetra Gamma Circulaire.
└ from 02 — Release - Tetra Gamma Circulaire 3


This is a magazine without any format, with the intention for a new one to be developed each time.
└ from 02 — Release - Tetra Gamma Circulaire 3


We worked around the ideas present in our 'Pushing Scores' project.
└ from 02 — Release - Tetra Gamma Circulaire 3


Each student had to develop their own project around the process of making a score.
└ from 02 — Release - Tetra Gamma Circulaire 3


This was put in place to both limit possibilities and to unite the format.
└ from 02 — Release - Tetra Gamma Circulaire 3


‘Fred Flintstone meets the twenty-first century’, it was referred to as.
└ from 02 — Release - Tetra Gamma Circulaire 3


Aside from this, the magazine is also comprised of a floppy drive, speakers, an audio input, a camera, touchpads and an LED light.
└ from 02 — Release - Tetra Gamma Circulaire 3


PRESENTATION OF PRINCIPIUM 2.0 (DOB073) @ STADSLIMIET, ANTWERP 2 Jul 2017 @ Stadslimiet, Antwerp with Remörk (Kris Delacourt) The installation setup contains six of the twelve releases of PRINCIPIUM 2.0.
└ from 03 — Principium 2.0 Presentation


During the performance, which lasted for several hours, visitors could freely join, listen and pose questions to the artist, Remörk (a.k.a.
└ from 03 — Principium 2.0 Presentation


Can the 'detuning' of music generate new ways of thinking about the relation between sound and scripture?
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


The notation of sound has a long and varied history, from Gregorian chants conducted following signs written in the air, to the standard notation of the Western music we know today and the possibilities offered by new computer technologies.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


Next to this there will also be graphic works by students from the Graphic Design Department of ArtEZ University of the Arts, Arnhem.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


Moving back and forth between sound and scripture, this evening consists of experimental performances and short lectures, with a special focus on the visual sound renderings Charlemagne Palestine included in his exhibition ‘GesammttkkunnsttMeshuggahhLaandtttt’ at Witte de With Center for Contempory Art, Rotterdam.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


Every aspect of his work deals with the quality of sound.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


RAFAËL ROZENDAAL (NL) Rafaël Rozendaal is a visual artist who uses the Internet as his canvas.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


At every level of detail, the everyday sound of our urban surroundings is the focus of his work.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


Within it, he develops the reciprocity of music and architecture, and of sound and image.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


REMCO VAN BLADEL (NL) Remco van Bladel is an Amsterdam-based graphic designer, and co-founder of the noise band/art collective Sonido Gris.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


He is a typography and graphic design tutor in the Department of Art and Design at ArtEZ University of the Arts, Arnhem, and is a frequent guest teacher at art schools throughout the Netherlands and abroad.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


I already knew the work of Charlemagne and we had also met during earlier events, so it was instantly clear that we could do something together that would make sense for the exhibition and ourselves.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


The ink was absorbed by the books and, after drying, it turned out to be a series of morphing colours that shifted with each page turn.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


These books were the starting point for curating the event, which subsequently sat within our 'Pushing Scores' project.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


Yann Gourdon was asked to do a hurry-curdy noisette while Charlemagne's books were projected page by page on the wall.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


Rafaël Rozendaal showed his web work 'Slow Empty', which functioned as real-time clockwork for the event.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


Justin Bennet showed his project 'Shot Gun Architecture', and Remco van Bladel introduced our project 'Pushing Scores' by doing a reading about historical and contemporary graphic scores and the concepts behind them.
└ from 04 — Noting Denoting


Carlson invents, Colson presents: 99 spines produced on a modified Canon IR2016 copy machine' by Vaast Colson, produced on a 'prepared copier' At the 2016 WIELS Art Book Fair we presented this live-made, copy-zine by Vaast Colson named 'Carlson invents, Colson presents: 99 spines produced on a modified Canon IR2016 copy machine', which was produced on a 'prepared copier'.
└ from 05 — Wiels Artbook Fair


The copy machine was amplified by several internal microphones, through which the sound of every print run was recorded.
└ from 05 — Wiels Artbook Fair


Each run of ninty-nine copies (the maximum run of the machine) was printed on transparent foil and is now accompanied by a foil cover with the dub-cut audio file in it.
└ from 05 — Wiels Artbook Fair


The image duplicated in the zine is a drawing that is engraved on the glass plate of the copy machine itself.
└ from 05 — Wiels Artbook Fair


He came up with the idea of the Xerox copier, which within a single contained print run makes in an audio recording, a booklet and a printed image.
└ from 05 — Wiels Artbook Fair


These artists don’t shy away from the big questions revolving around the place and role of the artist in society and the world around them.
└ from 05 — Wiels Artbook Fair


He opens up the artistic field to explore what is happening in the art world.
└ from 05 — Wiels Artbook Fair


In his work, Colson constantly questions the relationship with the audience and is also strongly interested in mythology and the authentic (or not) mystique of the artist's existence, which he usually explores in his performances.
└ from 05 — Wiels Artbook Fair


The process is always important, but the end result, which is variable for Colson and influenced by the context, is an important part of his work.
└ from 05 — Wiels Artbook Fair


In addition, Colson explores the commercial side of the art world and the economic consequences of artistry.
└ from 05 — Wiels Artbook Fair


The magnets for the sensor ride on top of the record player's platter and could be placed freely to make your own patterns.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Principium 1.0' appeared as a hacked synth reduced to a single octave, to be played with magnets on a colourful playing field, parallelling the same patterns.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Principium 2.0' comes in the form of twelve records and this magnetic application, which follows very elementary rules – some old, some new.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Together, all twelve records form the complete set, which one 'game' requires.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Join the community.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


He was intrigued by the invitation, but it took a long time to develop.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Nevertheless, we finally fine-tuned concepts and decided not produce recordings but to embed the concept of 'Principium' into a two-in-one record and a music tool.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


This was quite a process but it eventually resulted in a beautiful limited edition of twelve pieces, developed and designed in collaboration between Kris and the team of DE PLAYER.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


The funny thing is that after the presentation at Stadslimiet, the recordings of this eight-hour performance were edited back to a 12" vinyl record, which was released by the label Ultra Eczema shortly after.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Principium' comes from the title of a project by Vaast Colson.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Colson used tiny paper sticker dots, the kind that most art galleries use to denote which works in a show have been sold.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


He drew a number of random lines across the sticker sheets, and since there are eight by twelve stickers on a sheet you end up with tiny line segments marking each of the stickers.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Colson then asked some artist to make reinterpretations of the works and from here the idea to use them as a music score originated.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Colson made two booklets in the 'Principium' series – comprised of reproductions of each used sticker sheet and the result.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


It's just that Kris Delacourt was so intrigued by the leftover sticker sheets, with their eight by twelve grid they just screamed 'SEQUENCER!
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


And so, he went on to design 'Principium 1.0'; a magnetic board with the same field as the sticker sheets, which he activated with magnets as a synthesizer.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


As mentioned, the first version was a modified Casio keyboard.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


He reduced the number of keys to twelve, and added a magnetic sequencer board to it.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


The idea was to put white magnets atop of the coloured dots as a way to blank them out.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


The sequencer controller is a reed switch matrix that, when a magnet is present, allows step pulses to pass to digital switches that bridge the original Casio keys.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Principium 2.0' is then another piece in step with the principle of Colson's original 'Principium'.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


As Delacourt didn't just want to publish a record with recordings of the 'Principium 1.0', he decided to transpose the idea onto a prepared record player using magnets and a specific device.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


This is an interview with Kris Delacourt (Remörk) on his practice and the 'Principium' story.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


DE PLAYER: I've been following the 'Principium' story on your blog, which dates back to the summer of 2012, so four years ago.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


As mentioned, this is the short version, can you give me the full story?
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


At least, that's where the initial form and the name came from.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


The works are by a friend of mine, the Belgian artist Vaast Colson.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


He made these beautiful pieces where he used tiny paper sticker dots, you know the ones that most art galleries use to denote which works in a show have been sold?
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


What he did was draw a bunch of random lines across the sticker sheets, and since there are eight by twelve stickers on a sheet you end up with stickers with tiny line segments drawn on them.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Anyway, Vaast was putting together a show where other people would do reinterpretations of some of his works, and around the same time we had a nice chat about alternative musical scores, graphic scores and what not.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


So he showed me the two booklets he made for the 'Principium' series – reproductions of each used sticker sheet and the result.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


The funny thing was that he thought his resulting collages would be nice to use as scores – and they probably would be – but it's just that I was so intrigued by the leftover sticker sheets, with their eight by twelve grid that just screamed 'SEQUENCER!
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


And the first version was indeed a modified Casio keyboard.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


I reduced the number of keys to twelve, and added a magnetic sequencer board to it.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


It's an iron board and it has the same visuals as the sticker sheets.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


The idea was to put white magnets on top of the coloured dots to blank them out, so you end up with something analogous to taking a sticker off the sheet – a white space in a field of colour.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


I don't know if I need to go into too much technical detail, but the sequencer controller is just a reed switch matrix that, when a magnet is present, allow step pulses to pass to digital switches that bridge the original Casio keys.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


I was really happy with the results, and especially with the fact that it's so inviting towards an audience.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


And I never gave it that much thought, but the fact that when you stick magnets somewhere it makes a musical phrase, well, I guess to some people that would be wizardry, hah.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


The next step was when Peter Fengler of DEPLAYER/DOB Records said he wanted to do a record with the Casio version.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


But there were several reasons for me to hold back a little on the idea.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


The first hesitation was that the Casio version really works best through audience interaction – people moving magnets around, changing the sounds on the keyboard and so on.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


So we discussed other possibilities, like capturing a live performance, or possibly even cutting records on the fly with his vinyl lathe.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


DOB Records have put out some crazy releases, really pushing the boundaries of what can be done with the medium of vinyl.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


For example, there's this box set which has records that have built-in radio transmitters, records with impossible shapes where you need to turn the stylus of your record player upside down.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Just recording the Casio would definitely have been one of the safer, more boring options.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Meanwhile, I had been toying around with leftover magnets and magnetic sensors, sticking magnets to a metal turntable platter and using the sensors to switch audio on and off, sort of like a programmable tremolo.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


So we put two and two together, and ended up doing twelve 10" lathe cuts (which came in a box with those electronic switches), with eight magnets each as based on the original grid and a 12" metal platter to sit under the 10" for the magnets to stick to.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


And because I couldn’t make up my mind about what sounds to record from the Casio, I ended up not recording the Casio at all.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


I played around with filtering and octaves, because during testing we'd found that if we used slowly evolving records, the results were a lot more interesting.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


That same ten-minute piece was then sped up for the other notes, going up in pitch and becoming shorter for each record.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


So the C note runs for tens minutes and the B note is something like five minutes and twenty seconds.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Peter did a great job cutting the vinyl in coloured perspex, with colours matching the paper stickers.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


And an honourable mention to Koos of DOB who did an amazing job designing the packaging.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Vaast and Dennis Tyfus of Ultra Eczema run a space in Antwerp together called Stadslimiet, and that's where we had the record presentation.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Peter brought six record players, matching the six colours of the vinyl nicely – two notes each.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Basically, the program decided for me which records to play, whether to repeat them or not when they were finished, whether to leave the turntable empty, whether the electronics should punch holes in the sound when a magnet was detected or the opposite, how may magnets on each turntable and the playback volume.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


The only thing I had any control over was where to put the magnets, which determines the rhythm.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


And since all the records have different lengths, it ended up being one long shifting overlapping piece.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Funny thing was that we’d agreed to let it run until 23:00, and at about two minutes to then I got the first ever instruction to leave all the turntables empty.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


After that, Dennis asked me if I wanted to do a release of the recordings.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


I think the idea to make a vinyl record came after Dennis heard some of the selections and thought they shouldn’t be out on tape but on vinyl instead.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


DE PLAYER: Is this LP the final version of this project, or do you see it evolving into future iterations?
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


There’s something appealing in the number twelve even, and there's the appeal of building instruments too.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


What was the problem?
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Recording the Casio felt too definitive at the time.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


But having made that 12" vinyl version, and having done a performance that worked quite well, I didn’t mind starting from what is essentially the documentation of a past event.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


I guess my main fear was that by cutting chunks out of a much larger whole, you risk losing the context – and I'm still not sure what this record sounds like to people that weren't there.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


The thing is, each of the eight hours had the turntables spinning at 33rpm, so the basic underlying tempo never changes.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Of course, because the basic tempo is the same, it would have been relatively easy to start editing, splicing things together.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


But to be honest I've never even considered that – eight hours of material and endless editing possibilities, that's a nightmare.., The decision to have straight up documentation, just select bits instead of editing them some more, really made the selection process easier.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


I think I ended up with five or six pieces that I though could hold their own on a record, four of which made the final cut.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


DE PLAYER: Do you think that, by bringing it back to an LP, you're making it easier for the listener?
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Were there people who actually listened to the whole eight-hour performance?
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Do you think that listening to an eight-hour performance demands another kind of concentration from the listener than listening to an LP?
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Kris Delacourt: There were some people there that sat through the whole thing, yes.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


And that was never the question either.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


But it was pretty intense, so yes, this record is probably the light version.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Kris Delacourt: I guess there was the point where I decided to just do a ten-minute organ improvisation, that was a bit of a turning point.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


The improvisation might be one of the major flaws, actually, conceptually speaking.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


But I really needed a break from thinking it over and to just do something... Plus, it adds a much needed layer of spontaneity that works beautifully, not in the least musically, so no regrets.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


I like working with concepts a lot, as a starting point, but I'm also interested enough in the results to loosen up the concept if I feel it's needed.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


DE PLAYER: I could say that the 10" records were vinyl records as a tool, and that this LP is a vinyl record as a product.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


How do you perceive the function a piece of vinyl can have?
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Kris Delacourt: The 10" records have all been sold as well, so they sit somewhere in the middle.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


But they do form one big piece, and as far as final forms go, I guess you could consider the performance to be the final form of that particular piece.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


It really was a one-time event, with the vinyls functioning as a tool, yes.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Of course, taking what is essentially a medium for reproducing and turning it into something of an instrument in it's own right again, that's nothing new – think hip hop, turntablism, even things like the Mellotron did that.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


You know, the music on the record came from a performance I did, based on a concept I came up with.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


It's a result of that whole chain reaction, so in that way it's definitely the result of collaborating with all those people.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


He always stressed, right from the start, that any interpretation I gave of his work was no longer his work.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


We worked on the packaging together, and it looks amazing because of them.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


And the same goes for this record on Ultra Eczema: I have to say I'm really happy we finally got an Ultra Eczema release together, it's something Dennis had been asking for for quite some time... He’d actually given up asking.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


DE PLAYER: When Joseph Beuys was asked why he hated the term 'conceptual art', he said, 'Because a concept, an idea, is a starting point, not a final form.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


If you stick to the concept, you miss out on the creative aspect, which should be the most important part.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Kris Delacourt: Not having to execute ideas into a physical and therefore flawed final form was the whole point of conceptual art, no?
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


So I don't think I belong in the conceptual art section.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


And sometimes, by sticking to it, you end up with the most unexpected results – adhering to rules you impose on yourself makes you do stuff you would never have decided for yourself.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Still, the Ultra Eczema one is definitely the first record that is more widely available, and much more of a pure record than an artist's edition, so I know what he’s saying.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


It's a document of what I'm happy to be working on at the moment, and hopefully it's something that others can enjoy as well.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


I tend to associate collage records with cut and paste editing, jumpcuts, going from one atmosphere to the next in no time.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Quite the contrary, actually.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


The only things remotely close to jumpcuts that are on this record were due to the electronics of the installation, the sensors turning the sound on and off.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


And even though it has strong rhythmic patterns, the underlying harmonies and atmosphere shift quite slowly.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


DE PLAYER: Do you think this LP would also be enjoyable if someone would listen to it without knowing a single thing about the whole concept behind it?
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Or perhaps you would perceive it as a failure if it weren't enjoyable without the concept?
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Like I said, I know it's not easy listening per se, and some might probably find it boring at first try, with the tempo being the same for the whole record and all.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


I guess I am aiming for the best of both worlds there.
└ from 06 — Principium 2.0 Publication


Focusing on the potential of graphic scores and the publishing of sound and image, we present Telcosystems alongside their recent publication 'Resonanz', a reading from 'Schematic as a Score' as well as a concert by Derek Holzer and a live performance by Julia Bünnagel with modified records.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


What are the possibilities of graphic scores, in a day and age in which graphic notation is still commonly seen as a 'drawing', merely serving as some kind of sheet music?
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


Based on our compilation of the most contemporary and innovative graphic notation practices in the fields of music, sound art, performance art, e-culture, new-media art, graphic design and media design, we will introduce artists and designers from various creative disciplines to a national and international audience, with the goal of collectively developing new forms of graphic notation.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


Incorporated into the structure of the book are sensors and electronics, providing each page with its own unique soundtrack, which can be listened to via speakers or headphones.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


On this evening, 'Resonanz' will be the starting point for a Q&A, demonstration and live presentation.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


In their audiovisual works, Telcosystems research the relation between the behavior of programmed numerical logic and the human perception of this behavior, aiming at an integration of human expression and programmed machine behavior.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


This becomes manifest in the immersive audiovisual installations they make, in films, videos, soundtracks, prints and in live performances.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


Telcosystems' installations and films focus on real-time, self-structuring, generative processes, and in their live performances they focus on the interaction with these processes.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


Incorporated into the structure of the book are sensors and electronics, providing each page with its own unique soundtrack, which can be listened to via speakers or headphones.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


For this evening event, 'Resonanz' will be the starting point of Q&A, demonstration and live presentation.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


In their audiovisual works, Telcosystems research the relation between the behavior of programmed numerical logic and the human perception of this behavior, aiming at an integration of human expression and programmed machine behavior.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


This becomes manifest in the immersive audiovisual installations they make in the form of films, videos, soundtracks, prints and live performances.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


Telcosystems’ installations and films focus on real-time, self-structuring, generative processes, and in their live performances they focus on the interaction with these processes.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


As you turn the thick pages of the book, you encounter a different pattern along with a different soundtrack.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


I turned and turned the pages, each time trying to think about the possible connections between the colours and patterns printed on the pages and the sound they emitted.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


She is part of the sound art collective Sculptress of Sound.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


Julia's solo live performances primarily refer to the modified vinyl records that produce extraordinary sounds.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


Julia's peculiar method of modifying vinyl records includes various forms of physical treatment such as sewing, painting or pasting the vinyl surfaces.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


DEREK HOLZER (US) Derek Holzer is an American instrument builder and sound artist based in Helsinki and Berlin, whose current interests include DIY analogue electronics, the relationship between sound and space, media archaeology and the meeting points of electroacoustic, noise, improvisation and extreme music.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


For the 'PUSHING' event, Derek will do a reading entitled 'Schematic as Score: Uses and Abuses of the (In)Deterministic Possibilities of Sound Technology', and after that he will do a live set based on researching analogue visuals with the oscilloscope.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


The reading begins by noting that over the past few years a strong reaction against the sterile world of laptop sound and video has inspired a new interest in analogue processes, or 'hands dirty' art, in the words of practitioner John Richards.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


With this renewed analogue interest comes a fresh exploration of the pioneers of the electronic arts during the pre-digital era of the 1960s and 1970s.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


On the live oscilloscope concert Holzer states, 'The Vectorian Era opens with a screaming across the sky.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


Analogue electronic computers pre-date their digital counterparts by several decades, and one of the first practical applications of the analogue computer was in controlling the trajectories of German V2 rockets as they traced their rainbow of gravity from Flanders towards London during the Second World War.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


Informed by the discourse of media archaeology, my own personal interest in analogue vector graphics isn't merely retro-for-retro's-sake.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


For our event series within the context of the 'Pushing Scores' project, we programmed this evening after we got in touch with Telcosystems about their 'Resonanz' publication.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


They approach DE PLAYER for some input surrounding the production and distribution of it, and because of the direct relation between sound and image, and the new interface an object like that represents, it was a clear match of interests.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


They did a reading on the concepts and necessity of the project, as well as all the implications resulting from its development and production.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


To complete the event we searched for two completely different approaches to composition.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


Julia Bünnagel was also invited, under the guise of contributing a more physical input.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


In the case of the 'prepared record', the record or musical piece is not used as a reproductive technique.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


In contrast to the composer or musician who perceives the record first and foremost as a vehicle transporting his or her musical ideas, here the interest lies especially in the optical/sculptural, as well as the acoustic presence and the compression of an idea when working with the playback possibilities and impossibilities of recording techniques.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


The end result is not a reproduction but a transformation of the original source and ultimately becomes an autonomous score and/or unique graphic/sculptural piece in and of itself.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


The defective record, as opposed the standardised smooth reproduction of sound, means quality and concept at the same time.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


In his article 'New Plasticism in Music: Possibilities of the Gramophone', László Moholy-Nagy said that it lies in the peculiarity of human nature that: The abuse and misunderstanding [of the record form] are necessary to gain results.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


After every new recording the functioning apparatus is pushed ahead to further new impressions.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


That is one of the reasons for the necessity to always continue experiments in New Plasticism.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


From this standpoint the configurations are only worthwhile when they produce new, previously unknown, relationships.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


In other words, this means that reproduction (repetitions of already existing relations) without richer viewpoints from the special standpoint of creative production can, only in the best cases, be considered as a virtuosic opportunity.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


As production, meaning here productive creation, above all serves the human condition, we must attempt to further our purposes of creative production through the uses of those apparatuses or methods which until now have been used only for reproduction purposes.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


In 1989 the 'Broken Music' exhibition was held in Berlin at DAAD gallery with work by, among others, Nam June Paik, John Cage, Milan Knížák and Christian Marclay.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


All had worked with the medium of the vinyl record and added a new use/application.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


The outcomes ranged from installations to be played by the public to plastic works in which the plate was transformed, mutated.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


The usual code of the record, as defined by the music industry, was broken in all works.
└ from 07 — Pu-sh-ing-Sco-res Event


As a production platform, specialised in the relationship between sound, art, publishing and performance, DE PLAYER presents works by artists within the frame of the project 'Pushing Scores' – an ongoing project by DE PLAYER and Dutch graphic designer Remco van Bladel.
└ from 08 — Art Rotterdam Presentation


The initiatives gather within a part of the programme called 'Intersections'.
└ from 08 — Art Rotterdam Presentation


It has been beneficial for us because the format allowed us to reach an audience that would otherwise never come to DE PLAYER itself.
└ from 08 — Art Rotterdam Presentation


For this year's festival, it was clear to us that we should present the 'Pushing Scores' project.
└ from 08 — Art Rotterdam Presentation


We decided to envision the framework for the installation as a three-dimensional staff to write down music.
└ from 08 — Art Rotterdam Presentation


By doing so, we developed a multidimensional approach to the tactics that can be used for making scores and how the outcomes could finally exist as a tradable object.
└ from 08 — Art Rotterdam Presentation


People could continuously listen to some audio publications (by Telcosystems, Cold Void and Davide Mosconi) as well take part in the production process by spraying new works for the next potential customer.
└ from 08 — Art Rotterdam Presentation


DE PLAYER will unveil its third issue of Tetra Gamma Circulaire (TGC) – the unknown audio magazine.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


TGC#3 is compiled in collaboration with the students of XPUB, a course within the Master of Media Design and Communication at the Piet Zwart Institute, Rotterdam.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


HIELE MARTENS (BE) Sometimes 1 + 1 is greater than the sum of its parts, but if you put two of Belgium's finest composers and musicians together, it adds up to an infinite number.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


Hiele Martens, or the collaboration of Lieven Martens Moana and Roman Hiele, delve deeply into new territory that could be interpreted as a 2017 update of Maurice Kagel's 'Exotica', but made by self-aware electronic musicians.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


Hiele Martens' debut record is about to be released on Ultra Eczema and is expected to become one of the highlights of this year.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


HELGA JAKOBSON (CA) Whether culminating in actions or objects, Helga Jakobson's work responds to conditions of limbo within existence and acts as a platform to confront the unknown, focusing on death, time and ephemerality.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


Currently she is constructing a digital and physical web; weaving together the overlapping, intuitive and sometimes complicated interconnections that comprise her interest in handcraft, witchcraft and digitalcraft.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


The main threads that run between these interests are the experience of women, their traditional work and their sharing of knowledge.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


His performances have been described as surrealist puppet theatre in which the characters are amplified objects such as old tools, kitchen utensils, toys, springs and decorative kitsch.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


Bergmark is the ultimate rethinker of what music can be, in sound and in performance, evidenced by the fact that you can sometimes find him hanging on two piano strings from a ceiling.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


XPUB (International) Experimental Publishing (XPUB) is a new course of the Piet Zwart Institute's Media Design and Communication Master programme.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


The concept of the course revolves around two core principles: First, the inquiry into the technological, political and cultural processes through which things are made public; and second, the desire to expand the notion of publishing beyond print media and its direct digital translation.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


The XPUB students who contributed to the development of TGC#3 are: Karina Dukalska, Max Franklin, Giulia de Giovanelli, Clàudia Giralt, Francisco González, Margreet Riphagen, Nadine Rotem-Stibbe and Kimmy Spreeuwenberg.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


Piet Zwart Institute > TGC#3, Seminar + Live Event: Together with the team of the Experimental Publishing course at the Piet Zwart Institute, a seminar was organised for the students over a period of three months during which the principles of 'Pushing Scores' took the lead.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


A publication was taken as a joint focal point, the form of which could be determined in more detail.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


However, it was decided to start from the floppy disc as a medium.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


The idea of a score functioned as a guideline to shape their project and to test the working process.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


It resulted in the Tetra Gamma Circular #3, subtitled 'An unknown audio magazine', and is in itself a certain kind of publication platform that functions almost as a jukebox for floppy disks.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


The local WiFi station makes it possible to access all projects (on floppy disk) by receiving these projects via a mobile phone or on the computer.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


As a dancer she is curious about why there is no universal graphic notation system in the dance.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


Whether it is about recording movements for archiving, or writing new choreographies for the future, she concentrated on which elements of dance are overwritable (such as direction or footwork) and which are not.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


The audience has the opportunity to control the dancers' steps on stage through a web interface that shows her personal approach to graphically representing ten jive steps.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


As another example, Max Franklin's research focuses on the fragile nature of improvisation in music, with software.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


Through research into the act of improvisation in music, Max investigates ideas about liberation and resistance present in improvisation; both in artistic practices, and their broader application as a critical methodology of research and exploration.
└ from 09 — MAT>NET>PU TGC3 Presentation


ARCHIVING 'PUSHING SCORES' WITH VALENTINA VUKSIC, ANA GUEDES, VARIA AND NIEK HILKMANN Thu 29 Nov 2018 20:00 @ Varia, Rotterdam During this evening we will focus on archiving our 'Pushing Scores' project, a project interrogating the meaning of the 'graphic score' that has been running for the last two to three years.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


What are the possibilities of graphic scores, in a day and age in which graphic notation is still usually seen as a 'drawing', merely serving as some kind of sheet music?
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


To communicate the project to a larger audience, DE PLAYER asked Varia to develop a context and technical environment as a web-based archival publication for the 'Pushing Scores' project.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


The idea is that this material will be embodied by a dynamic, accessible and therefore active archive, which creates new relations, new perspectives and, at its best, new concepts for the production and/or processes of making scores.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


Varia will host the evening, and explain their ideas and approach to developing the archive.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


The 'runtime' of executed software is staged for an audience to provide an acoustic experience: That of logic encountering the physical world.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


Valentina Vuksic was involved in the ARTKILLART x JUBILEE event in 2017.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


Her score was made on the spot with programming language; a sort of live coding.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


In reaction to the dematerialisation of music (the general disappearance of music released in its physical form), the artists of the ARTKILLART label roster refocus their releases as material objects.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


Artists who joined the event include Valentina Vuksic, Arnaud Rivière, Nicolas Montgermont and Jan Kees Van Kampen.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


Her work is a personal exploration of the possibilities afforded by articulated hard- and software mediation.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


Vuksic considers the time and space of computer processing and memory as levels of reality.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


She aims for a sensual experience of the analytical sphere to become concrete, where logic encounters the physical world.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


They reveal, in an immediate way, the activities taking place between computer processes in the widest sense and the computer electronics they are running on.
└ from 10 — Valentina Vuksic


An interactive graphic score/light box/kinetic work fixed inside the cabinet, and 2.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


A mobile website that connects you to the hardware inside the cabinet and turns your phone into a local speaker for a polyphonic voice piece.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


In the eleventh century, the Italian Guido of Arezzo, one of the most important founders of musical notation, developed a scale consisting of six notes: ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


Later the seventh tone 'si' was added.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


The well-known 'Do-Re-Mi' and the solfège, a teaching method in music for learning pitch and the singing of sheet music, was developed from this.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


The Small Museum, the former announcement box at the front of Paradiso, is being converted by Remco van Bladel into a local WiFi point that will stream a polyphonic 'Pa-Ra-Di-So'.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


An algorithmic choir is compiled live by the mobile phones that connect to the WiFi point while audiences are waiting in line to enter Paradiso.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


The idea was to create a choir with mobile phones for the audience waiting to get inside the Dutch pop temple of Paradiso.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


The work was installed for a period at The Small Museum – a cabinet on the facade of Paradiso, Amsterdam.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


In the eleventh century, the Italian music theorist Guido of Arezzo developed an ascending scale consisting of six-notes: ut, re, mi, fa, sol and la.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


This scale is the basis for 'Do-Re-Mi' and solfège, a music education method used to teach the singing of Western music.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


The Small Museum, which was previously used to house the public announcements of the church, will be transformed into a local WiFi hotspot to stream a multi vocal 'Pa-Ra-Di-So Rapsodia' – a live algorithmic choir composition created through the phones that connected to the WiFi, and therefore the score, while waiting to enter the building.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


Before music was established in writing, each choir leader led the Gregorian chants of the 'scola cantorum' with movements.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


This method of conducting, called 'cheironomy', consisted of writing signs in the air that contained clear instructions for the trained choir singers in terms of pitch change, duration and tone strength.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


Later, the neumens – depending on the relative pitch differences – were noted above, on or below a line referring to a pitch determined by the choral conductor.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


As far as melody is concerned, humming was increasingly defined by the expansion of the number of lines, which first corresponded by colour and later by keys to certain steps in the medieval ranges.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


In the eleventh century, Guido van Arezo introduced the staff with four lines (this is still in use).
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


In the middle of the thirteenth century, Peter de Cruce came to a notation in which the relative duration of each note is indicated by the form of the note.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


This so-called 'manual notation' was of great importance to ensure the reproducibility of the various rhythmic possibilities in the developing polyphonic music of Western Europe.
└ from 11 — Para-phonic Poly-disco


After learning of Attali's book, 'Noise: The Political Economy of Music', we used it as inspiration for the project 'Pushing Scores'.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


It was particularly of interested to us because of the way in which he focuses on the reproduction of music.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


The second phase is important to the perspective of sound reproduction, graphic score and the tangibility of sound and/or the object.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


It refers to the era of printed music (1500–1900).
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


During this period, the musical score is tied to a physical carrier for the first time, and thus becomes a commodity for sale in the market.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


He calls this chapter 'Represent' because it is the project of the executive.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


This represents the music in the absence of the maker, and in the presence of an audience an effort must be made to read and articulate the intensity of the composer of the magazine.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


With the rise of the various avant-garde movements from the beginning of the twentieth century, in addition to new forms of 'sound', the relationship between sound and its visual representation is also being re-examined here.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


The third stage deals with the mechanical reproduction of music and the fourth stage could be considered as already referring to the idea of sampling, although it was only first published in translation by the University of Minnesota in 1985.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


At the time of writing it would have been quite prophetic.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


What kind of scores can be made with the myriad of new techniques and media that have been developed since Attali's writing, and which are definitely influential on our conceptual thinking of music and its reproduction.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


Jacques Attali (born 1 Nov 1943) is a French economic and social theorist, writer, political adviser and senior civil servant, who served as a counsellor to President François Mitterrand from 1981 to 1991 and was the first head of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development from 1991 to 1993.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


He wrote the book 'Noise: The Political Economy of Music', which is one of the inspirations for our project 'Pushing Scores'.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


Attali is the first to point out other possible logical consequences of the 'reciprocal interaction' model – namely, the possibility of a superstructure to anticipate historical developments and to foreshadow new social formations in a prophetic and annunciatory way.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


The argument of 'Noise' is that music, unique among the arts for reasons that are themselves overdetermined, has precisely this annunciatory vocation; that the music of today stands both as a promise of a new, liberating mode of production, and as the menace of a dystopian possibility – which stands as that mode of production's baleful mirror image.
└ from 12 — Jacques Attali


This encompasses the conceptualisation, the funding and the execution.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


We knew that Remco had written an essay called 'Musical Theories in Graphic Design' – on the subject of graphic notation within a broader field of theory formation in contemporary music – and felt it would be a good match to work together on a research project about the graphic score.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


We had common interests, but at the same time approached the topic from different angles given our differing networks of practice and our outputs as a stage, publisher and designer.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


Remco is co-founder of 'WdW Review' (Witte de With, Rotterdam), Dutch art book publisher Onomatopee and teaches graphic design at ArtEZ University of the Arts, Arnhem.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


He designed the publication and identity of the 'Aalto Natives' at the Finnish Pavilion of the 57th Venice Biennale.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


For the 2015 edition of the Venice Biennale, the studio was responsible for the design of the publication and identity of 'to be all ways to be', the exhibition by herman de vries for the Dutch Pavilion.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


The studio also takes care of the graphic design of the art magazine Metropolis M and its accompanying website.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


Remco van Bladel grew up in the record store of his father.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


The relation between the sound on the records and the visuals on the sleeves and packaging has a strong influence on his current practice, especially in relation to the strategy and concepts he creates for graphic design.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


In his 2002 essay 'Musical Theories in Graphic Design', Bladel discussed the subject of graphic notation within a broader field of theory formation in contemporary music.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


In it he transposed compositional methodologies of the avant-gardists in the twentieth century to graphic design methodologies, for instance, by understanding Steve Reich's phase shifting technique through the lens of design.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


Sound in relation to image remains an elusive phenomenon that continues to fascinate him because sound/music is the most abstract art form.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


The subjective nature, the way in which vibrations can release such strong emotions, makes it possible to deal speculatively and to use them for use in typography, image, material choices, folding methods and bookbinding systems.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


This tactility, the application of materiality and the use of printing techniques as a metaphor for sound play a major role in his entire practice.
└ from 13 — Remco van Bladel


We became familiar with the work of Derek Holzer through his project on tonewheels – an experiment in converting graphical imagery to sound, inspired by some of the pioneering twentieth century electronic music inventions.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


This analogue way of generating sound from graphic notation was an impulse to check him out for the 'Pushing Scores' project.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


He came up with the idea to give a reading of his text 'Schematics as a Score', because that was a current issue of his practice.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


It completely complimented our thinking around how to imagine the concept of composing and making scores.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


Derek Holzer (US, 1972) is a sound and light artist based in Helsinki and Berlin, whose current interests include DIY electronics, audiovisual instrument building, the relationship between sound and space, media archaeology and participatory art forms.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


http://macumbista.net Derek Holzer gave a lecture titled 'Schematic as Score: Use and Abuse of the (In)Deterministic Possibilities of Sound Technology'.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


In it he considers it axiomatic that, for every work of art that must be considered experimental, the possibility of failure must be built into its process.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


By this he does not mean the aestheticised, satisfying disturbances and cracking that Kim Cascone valorises, but the lack of satisfaction caused by a misplaced or misdirected procedure in the experiment, colossal or banal.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


These are not mistakes that should be looked up, sampled and celebrated, but the flat-on-your-ass gaffs and embarrassment that would disturb the sleep of all but the most Zen of musicians or composers.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


The presence of failure in a musical system represents feedback in the negative, a turning point in anticlimax, irrelevance, the everyday, the cliché or even unintentional silence.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


But this unwanted presence also guarantees the vitality of that fiercely fought area – the live electronic music performance.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


Over the past few years there has been a strong response to the sterile world of sound and video from the laptop.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


With this renewed analogue interest comes a fresh exploration of the pioneers of electronic art during the pre-digital era of the sixties and seventies.
└ from 14 — Derek Holzer


Over the past few years there has been a strong response to the sterile world of sound and video from the laptop.
└ from 15 — Schematic as Design


With this renewed analogue interest comes a fresh exploration of the pioneers of electronic art during the pre-digital era of the sixties and seventies.
└ from 15 — Schematic as Design


John Cage once quipped that Serge Tcherepnin's synthesizer system was 'the best musical composition that Serge had ever made', and it is precisely Cage's reformulation of the concert score from a list of deterministic note values to a set of indeterminable possibilities that allowed the blurring of lines between instrument-builder and music composer that followed.
└ from 15 — Schematic as Design


In 2011, Derek Holzer wrote an essay on this issue, which has since been published on the Internet as a downloadable PDF called 'VAGUE TERRAIN 19'.
└ from 15 — Schematic as Design


VECTOR SYNTHESIS' WORKSHOP WITH DEREK HOLZER AT PIKSEL 9–11 Mar 2018 @ Piksel Studio 207, Bergen 'VECTOR SYNTHESIS' is an audiovisual, computational art project using sound synthesis and vector graphics display techniques to investigate the direct relationship between sound and image.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


It draws on the historical work of artists such as Mary Ellen Bute, John Whitney, Nam June Paik, Ben Laposky and Steina & Woody Vasulka, among many others, as well as on ideas of media archaeology and the creative reuse of obsolete technologies.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


Audio waveforms control the vertical and horizontal movements as well as the brightness of a single beam of light, tracing shapes, points and curves with a direct relationship between sound and image.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


The Vector Synthesis library allows the creation and manipulation of 2D and 3D vector shapes, Lissajous figures and scan-processed image and video inputs using audio signals sent directly to oscilloscopes, hacked CRT monitors, Vectrex game consoles, ILDA laser displays or oscilloscope emulation softwares using the Pure Data programming environment.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


During this workshop, the attendants learnt how to use a custom library in the Pure Data programming environment to directly control the vertical and horizontal movements, as well as the brightness, of a beam of light.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


Derek Holzer was invited for the event 'PUSHING' on 20 Jan 2017.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


He did a reading of his text 'Schematic as a Score' alongside a live concert derived from his research on analogue visuals with the oscilloscope.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


A theoretical and historical text about the concept, written by Derek Holzer, 23 Nov 2016, Helsinki THE VECTORIAN ERA: An Investigation into Analogue Computer Graphics The Vectorian Era opens with a screaming across the sky.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


Analogue electronic computers pre-date their digital counterparts by several decades, and one of the first practical applications of the analogue computer was in controlling the trajectories of German V2 rockets as they traced their rainbow of gravity from Flanders towards London during the Second World War.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


As Friedrich Kittler has observed, the relationship of media technology to military tools of destruction was sealed by moments such as these.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


An example is 'Tennis for Two', programmed in 1958 by William Higinbotham on an analogue computer at Brookhaven National Laboratories in Long Island, New York, using an oscilloscope as the display.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


It combined a two-player interface with physics models of a bouncing ball displayed as vectors in motion, and is arguably the first publicly playable video game.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


In the early 1960s, the composer Morton Subotnik employed engineer Don Buchla to help him create 'the music of the future'.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


Buchla redesigned the existing function generators of analogue computers to respond to voltage controls of their frequency and amplitude.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


This gave birth to the realtime-controllable, analogue modular synthesizer, which was subsequently expanded by others such as Bob Moog and Serge Tcherepnin.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


In 1967, the Sony Portapak revolutionised video by taking the camera out of the television studio and into the hands of amateurs and artists.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


And by the early 1970s, an interest in cybernetics, systems theory and automatic processes brought the analog computer closer to the worlds of art, music and architecture.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


Figures such as Heinz von Foerster, Gordon Pask, Nam June Paik, Steina & Woody Vasulka, Iannis Xenakis and R. Buckminster Fuller all speculated on the effect of computers on society, and used computer-derived forms in their work.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


The 1972 Rutt-Etra Video Synthesizer, used famously by the Vasuka's in several works, employed an analogue computer to manipulate and deconstruct the raster of a conventional video signal with very otherworldly effects.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


Vector graphics were widely adopted by video game manufacturers in the late 1970s due to their computational efficiency, and the wealth of experience using them that the history of analogue computing provided.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


Perhaps the most iconic of these games is Asteroids', a space shooter released by Atari in 1979.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


Battle Zone' (1980), 'Tempest' (1981), and 'Star Wars' (1983) all stand as other notable examples from this Vectorian Era, and also as rudimentary training tools for the future e-warriors who would remotely guide missiles into Iraqi bunkers at the start of the next decade.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


As electronics became cheaper, smaller and faster in the 1980s, the dated technology of using analogue vectors to directly manipulate a Cathode Ray Tube fell out of favor and rasterised graphics and animations, and moving image quickly took their place.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


Informed by the discourse of media archaeology, my own personal interest in analogue vector graphics isn't merely retro-for-retro's-sake.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


remain largely unchanged since the dawn of the Vectorian Era indicates to me that seeking to satisfy them with technology alone is quite problematic.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


Therefore, an investigation into 'tried-and-failed' methods from the past casts our current attempts and struggles in a new kind of light.
└ from 16 — Tektronix Oscilloscope Music


He was a key member of, and influence on, Fluxus, the international group of avant-garde artists centred on George Maciunas, having been involved with the group from the first performances in Wiesbaden 1962 until Maciunas' death in 1978.
└ from 17 — Event Scores


One of the originators of 'participatory art', in which the artwork can only be experienced by the active involvement of the viewer, he is most famous for his 'Event Scores', such as 'Drip Music' (1962), and is widely seen as an important precursor to conceptual art.
└ from 17 — Event Scores


He described his own art as a way of 'ensuring that the details of everyday life, the random constellations of objects that surround us, stop going unnoticed.
└ from 17 — Event Scores


I brought Steve Joy to St. Vincent College when I returned to the monastery from Paris in 1963.
└ from 17 — Event Scores


For his 'Vehicle Sundown Event', he published a set of about fifty cards to be given to participants who participated in the event with their vehicles.
└ from 17 — Event Scores


Then each driver, with a shuffled deck of instructions, would begin performing at the sound of a signal.
└ from 17 — Event Scores


This work was performed at St. Vincent College under the direction of Stephen Joy with Roman Verostko assisting in 1963.
└ from 17 — Event Scores


Of specific inspiration is the fact that his works are composed of simple instructions and can be performed by anybody, giving them a highly democratic factor without losing their artistic impact.
└ from 17 — Event Scores


The fact that the work is purely language-based also hones in on our interest, as DE PLAYER has been publishing and presenting a lot of sound poetry over the years.
└ from 17 — Event Scores


A baton is a stick that is used by conductors primarily to enlarge and enhance the manual and bodily movements associated with directing an ensemble of musicians.
└ from 18 — Dirigeerstok


This object is chosen to be part of the archive because it is the first and most simple tool to translate a written score to the musician who has to execute it.
└ from 18 — Dirigeerstok


It is the first intermediary after the score itself and comes from a method of conducting called 'cheironmy'.
└ from 18 — Dirigeerstok


Before music was established in writing, each choir leader led the Gregorian chants of the 'scola cantorum' with movements.
└ from 18 — Dirigeerstok


This method of conducting, called 'cheironomy', consisted of writing signs in the air that contained clear instructions for the trained choir singers in terms of pitch change, duration and tone strength.
└ from 18 — Dirigeerstok


Later, the neumens – depending on the relative pitch differences – were noted above, on or below a line referring to a pitch determined by the choral conductor.
└ from 18 — Dirigeerstok


Jörg Piringer (AT) is a member of the Institute for Trans-acoustic Research, member of the Vegetable Orchestra, radio artist, sound poet, visual poet and musician, and holds a Master's degree in Computer Science.
└ from 19 — Jörg Piringer


He is also involved in the online poetry platform Huelkorven.
└ from 19 — Jörg Piringer


The way in which he arrives at his poetry is very closely linked to his knowledge and skills of the programming language.
└ from 19 — Jörg Piringer


Image and sound are created immediately during the performance by speaking and vocalising into a microphone and modifying the voice through signal processors and samplers while the software is analysing the sound to create animated abstract visual text-compositions.
└ from 19 — Jörg Piringer


Jörg Piringer has performed his visual sound poetry pieces, based on computer programming, at DE PLAYER in the past.
└ from 19 — Jörg Piringer


For each record a unique piece is generated that is spoken and performed by the same software.
└ from 19 — Jörg Piringer


The packaging of each record is also linked to the unique file and consists of an original visual work that is derived from or transformed via a formula from the programming language that underlies the audio poems present on the record.
└ from 19 — Jörg Piringer


DE PLAYER is interested in sound that fraternies in the abstract sense and makes people communicate with each other, without having to understand each other specifically in terms of language.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


Music and dance are complimentary to the context of being together without literally understanding each other word for word.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


In addition to the all-dominating impact of the music industry, which determines lifestyle at the level of confection, all sorts of de-mass-splintering genres are forming on the periphery of the musical firmament.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


The style and/or genre determine the identity.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


It is important here that the language is sung off the usual value of speech.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


The limits of speech become communication and nonsense, which both have the potential of speech.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


The foundation of language as an information transmission is the foundation of these tendencies and is at the heart of the oral tradition principle, influencing how stories can be told, how traditions are passed on, how the past feeds the present and how the present forms itself by muttering the past.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


Multilingualism is important in giving meaning to the things around us.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


Within 'Radical Listening' we want to see what the possibilities of communication and publishing are with the current means that are available to us.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


This idea is closely intertwined with the project 'Pushing Scores', in which the materialisation of sound plays a role.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


Listening in the sense of 'Radical Listening' is therefore not only about ears specifically, but generally about exploring our world, our position in it and the way in which communication is possible.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


Inspiration comes in the form of vocal poetry, 'poésie sonore' and text-sound composition.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


In our opinion, this area is an important one, especially in experimental sound, in the lecture-form and in the visual arts.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


The connection between the word and sound can be found in many ways in the art and music of the Fluxus movement, rap, the early avant-garde, soundproofing, laut poetry, musical theater, opera, performative series, radio plays and installation settings.
└ from 20 — Concrete Poetry


IRREGULAR #2313 STRIPPED Fri 14 Oct 2011 21:00 @ Wall Gallery, Rotterdam with Fersteinn Fersteinn (IS) is a quartet of multi-instrumentalists that play compositions by Guðmundur Steinn Gunnarsson, a repertoire that is written especially for the ensemble.
└ from 21 — Animated Notation


Fersteinn usually performs in the quietest of settings.
└ from 21 — Animated Notation


Guðmundur Steinn Gunnarsson (born 1982) is an Icelandic composer, performer and a founding member of S.L.Á.T.U.R., an experimental arts organisation in Reykjavík, as well as co-curator of the festival Sláturtíð.
└ from 21 — Animated Notation


This approach has led to the development of his animated notation, or 'anitation', instead of using traditional musical scores.
└ from 21 — Animated Notation


During the performance, the musicians follow specific instructions that move across a computer screen.
└ from 21 — Animated Notation


This rhythmic language and animated notation, and the structural methods he uses in composition, were the subject of his Master's thesis at Mills College.
└ from 21 — Animated Notation


As he explains, 'By intently focusing on small differences, both in rhythm and pitch, the ear gets tuned to a microscopic mode of listening.
└ from 21 — Animated Notation


Fersteinn works with the method of so-called 'animation'.
└ from 21 — Animated Notation


They had been performing before we started the 'Pushing Scores' project, yet we nevertheless claim their work to be part of it.
└ from 21 — Animated Notation


Anitation' is the term for animated notation.
└ from 22 — Anitation


Instead of using traditional musical scores during the performance, the musicians follow specific instructions that move across a computer screen.
└ from 22 — Anitation


This rhythmic language and animated notation, and their subsequent structural methods, were the subject of Guðmundur Steinn Gunnarsson's Master's thesis at Mills College.
└ from 22 — Anitation


As he explains, 'By intently focusing on small differences, both in rhythm and pitch, the ear gets tuned to a microscopic mode of listening.
└ from 22 — Anitation


The idea of 'anitation' and the work of Guðmundur Steinn Gunnarsson fits perfectly within 'Pushing Scores'.
└ from 22 — Anitation


This often requires presenting the music as moving graphics on computer screens.
└ from 22 — Anitation


In that way, the most irregular things can become very intelligible.
└ from 22 — Anitation


He also used to be a co-curator of the Jaðarber concert series and Fengjastrútur Ensemble.
└ from 22 — Anitation


His music has been performed by the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra, the Iceland Symphony Orchestra, Caput Ensemble, Reykjavík Chamber Orchestra, Ensemble Adapter, Tøyen Fil og Klafferi, Ensemble l’Arsenale, Ensemble CRUSH, Aksiom Ensemble, Nordic Affect, Defun Ensemble, Iceland Flute Choir, Duo Harpverk, Roberto Durante, Markus Hohti, Mathias Ziegler, Georgia Browne, Timo Kinnunen, Shayna Dunkelmann, Una Sveinbjarnardóttir and Tinna Þosteinsdóttir.
└ from 22 — Anitation


Some of the festivals that have included Guðmundur’s music are Tectonics Festival (both Reykjavík and Glasgow), MATA, Musikin Aika, Ultima, November Music, Transit, Music for People and Thingamajigs, Nordlichter Biennale, Timisoara International Music Festival and the Irish Sound, Science and Technology Convocation in 2014, where Guðmundur was also keynote speaker.
└ from 22 — Anitation


He studied composition at Mills College, Iceland Academy of the Arts, Reykjavík College of Music, privately and at summer courses in Kürten and Darmstädt.
└ from 22 — Anitation


Is there a positive notation for this critical issue of performance, of silence in the voice, other than merely the courtesies of extended rests, or blanks in the score?
└ from 23 — Silence


The reader will see inscriptions that oscillate between pictures and writing, and between visual and auditory, exemplifying those capacities of drawing to operate in the spaces between languages.
└ from 23 — Silence


In the context of an experimental music notation, seeking to make an instrumental gesture of silence, how can we draw incipience?
└ from 23 — Silence


Before language there was the song.
└ from 23 — Silence


Before the song there was the yodel,' As Bart Plantenga stated in his reading on yodeling.
└ from 23 — Silence


He approaches the themes he uses (including authorship) through various entities directly linked to society.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


A few examples appeal to the imagination with regard to how a score can be understood and which elements and/or processes can play a role in this.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


From 2000 to 2006 Kreidler studied composition with Mathias Spahlinger, electronic music with Orm Finnendahl and Mesias Maiguashca and music theory with Eckehard Kiem at the University of Music Freiburg and at the Institute of Sonology (Computer Music) of the Koninklijk Conservatorium, the Hague.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


He also studied philosophy and art history at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


He works as a lecturer in music theory, ear training and electronic music at the Rostock Academy of Music and Theater, the Detmold Academy of Music, the Hanover University of Music and Drama and the Hamburg University of Music and Drama.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


His work/action 'Product Placements', which helped to discuss copyright and the level of creation in music, was widely spread.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


In a thirty-three second piece, he processed 70,200 quotations of foreign works, all of which he submitted individually via forms to the German Buma Stemra (GEMA).
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


Eventually, he was accompanied by numerous journalists with a small truck full of completed applications to the GEMA Directorate General in Berlin.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


A few cubic metres of printed matter were placed in the reception hall of the GEMA office.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


The minimal samples used (only milliseconds of time) are intended to test the credibility and effectiveness of the GEMA in relation to the digital reality.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


If such a fraction can still be labelled as music, it can still be linked to the original and the performing artist in terms of financial compensation for use.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


This is close to his work ‘Charts Music’, in which he used the share prices of various companies to derive pitches.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


Besides the share prices, some other statistics were used, such as the number of American soldiers killed in Iraq.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


In this piece, too, reference is made to the borderline areas of copyright, and credits composers and copyright holders mentioned by the respective companies instead of Kreidler himself.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


For another work he commissioned composers from low-wage countries to plagiarise his own music for a commission for the Festival Klangwerkstatt in Berlin.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


According to Kreidler, the action, entitled 'Fremdarbeit', is intended to focus attention on the themes of exploitation and authorship.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


This makes it particularly interesting when viewed from the perspective of experimentation and unorthodox composing.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


The AEX index, outsourcing of labour or copyright processes and social questions and implications around these issues form the fundament of some of his compositions.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


We asked Johannes to do a reading about his practice as a composer during the event we organised around music and capitalism.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


In September 2008 a piece of press advertised his action ‘Product Placements’, with which he wanted to initiate a discussion on copyright and the height of creation in music.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


In a thirty-three second piece of music, he processed 70,200 quotes of foreign works, proceeding to individually enrolled each one at the GEMA.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


For this purpose, he was accompanied by numerous press representatives to deliver a small truck's worth of completed applications to the GEMA Directorate General in Berlin.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


The plant is deliberately located in a legal gray area, which has been greatly enlarged by digital technologies, so that it is impossible to clarify the case so far.
└ from 24 — Johannes Kreidler


Ana Guedes is a multidisciplinary artist from Portugal who lives and works in the Hague.
└ from 25 — Ana Guedes


Her research focuses on the 'dialectic of tuning'.
└ from 25 — Ana Guedes


Within this framework, she investigates the working of memory with the intention to recreate situations, thus evoking a 'presence'.
└ from 25 — Ana Guedes


Through subjective interpretations of the ability to instrumentalise objects, she creates catalysts for thinking and contemplation.
└ from 25 — Ana Guedes


Her project 'UNTITLED RECORDS' is a performative sound installation that interweaves historical and emotional narratives through the 'instrumentalisation' of a collection of vinyl records.
└ from 25 — Ana Guedes


The vinyls were purchased in Angola, Portugal and Canada from the 60s to the early 80s and have travelled over three continents.
└ from 25 — Ana Guedes


Stained by the passage of time, scratched, with their covers eaten by moths, the records are signed and dated; they exist as passive witnesses of a displacement in time and space.
└ from 25 — Ana Guedes


Each date and signature is a coordinate, a clue in the reconstruction of a map tracing complex historical occurrences splitting into an infinite number of threads.
└ from 25 — Ana Guedes


The multi-arm record players, on which several timelines can be played, intertwine the juxtaposition of temporalities and imagined narratives trapped within the collection.
└ from 25 — Ana Guedes


Her archival approach and its political and personal implications are the starting point of this work.
└ from 25 — Ana Guedes


Because she uses and records the archive, the end result almost turns out to be a DJ set.
└ from 25 — Ana Guedes


Also the way in which she approaches the technical implementation of possibilities to program the record players is interesting, especially regarding, for example, the idea of 'schematics as a score'.
└ from 25 — Ana Guedes


Helga Jakobson is a Canadian artist whose practice consists of exploring conditions of limbo, with a focus on death, time and the ephemeral.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


This takes shape by building digital interfaces; instrumentation used to explore, amplify and reflect what is barely visible, tangible or audible, while expressing the resonance and relationship between people, plants and organic matter.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


She passes on the notation she distils from this to music companies in order to come to performances.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


Creation myths, such as in the Hopi and Navajo traditions, often centre around a grandmother spider figure who wove the night sky with her silk.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


There are spider figures in West African, Akan and Caribbean myths personifying the spider as a trickster.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


In Japan there's a focus on the lure of the spider, where it is sometimes likened to a prostitute.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


However, my favourite spider myth is from Greek mythology; that of Arachne, who wove a tapestry better than Athena, the Goddess of weaving and war.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


Arachne challenged Athena, believing in the superiority of her own abilities and with the support of her community.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


During the competition, Athena wove a tapestry depicting all of the times mortals challenged the Gods and lost, while Arachne wove accounts of the many times Zeus had raped mortal women.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


After Arachne won the competition, Athena transformed her into a spider, and this is where the name for arachnids originates.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


Arachne, a disturber of the status quo, is thought of as one of the first feminist authors.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


Using the material bequeathed to Arachne's doomed progeny, I've been weaving a visual and sonic tapestry of my own, using digital technology to form new means of mythologising and disseminating non-verbal experience.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


The sonification of spider webs asserts a reverence for the environment, the beauty of the ephemeral and loss.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


When the webs are harvested, my hand affects their original form.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


These webs then become a game of Cat's Cradle of sorts between the spider and I, not quite a collaboration but rather more of an exercise in ongoingness and recognition of loss.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


The intact web will not exist long in the world, and with my interference even less so.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


This strange, affective relay continues into the recording process, which results in the interpreted sound of an interpreted web.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


The recordings I make of the webs are an act of commemoration, and as Myers and Husk propose, 'This requires reading with our sense attuned to stories told in otherwise muted registers.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


The idea of a graphic score, a readable gesture, aids in the playability/repeatability of a piece of music that through its repetition allows for exploration, interpretation and imagination.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


These spiders have laid out scores in the form of webs that are barely visible ephemera drifting between branches or street signs or windows and I long to understand them.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


They remind me of George Crumb’s circular compositions; minus the pen and paper.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


In actuality, they are visual representations of the spider's consciousness (who can forget Dr. Peter Witt’s experiments with drug use on spiders and their resulting webs).
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


These structures are scores and instruments unreadable/unplayable by humans, but interpretable through speculative fabulation, in the case of the recordings I create.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


The webs I've chosen for this publication were harvested in the fall of 2018, after the first snowfall in Winnipeg, Canada.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


To find them I searched through basements, and bars, and zoos, and homes, and parks; though I found the majority of them in a greenhouse where I teetered over cacti and lavender bushes to collect them.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


The process of finding them could be likened to trying to make the invisible visible.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


In searching I began imagining where I would make a web, and then marvelling when I would find one in the most unlikely place, which only enchants me further into the world of spiders and webs and mythology.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


We became acquainted with Helga Jakobson's work through Bas van den Hurk, who at the time of introduction was teaching on the postgraduate program that Helga took part in at St Joost.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


Bas encouraged her to contact DE PLAYER as she was occupied with developing a machine that produces sound through the process of reading spider webs.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


The idea of a spider web as a score was also very closely aligned with the 'Pushing Scores' project.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


This project, named 'Arachnes Sonifier', became more and more developed over time and we will soon publish an album (DOB094) including the sound, images and conceptual information on our label.
└ from 26 — Helga Jakobson


In addition, it places itself in the tradition of electro acoustic music and 'musique concrète' – a French music movement that makes use of everyday sounds that are processed with the help of electronics into compositions and sound collages.
└ from 27 — BJ Nilsen


From the 'Dark Ecology' project of Sonic Acts, Amsterdam, BJ Nilsen has visited many mines and mining areas over time.
└ from 27 — BJ Nilsen


As a sound artist he realised how much sound there is in the mining industry and began to think in sonic terms about its impact and meaning.
└ from 27 — BJ Nilsen


What is the relationship between the sounds of mining and the community that surrounds them?
└ from 27 — BJ Nilsen


Over the years he has built up an extensive sound archive around this subject.
└ from 27 — BJ Nilsen


Both in active mines and in the abandoned mines and buildings surrounding areas and logistics locations in Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Russia and elsewhere.
└ from 27 — BJ Nilsen


In it he found the fragility of mining processes and the impact that mining activities have on the population and their biotope.
└ from 27 — BJ Nilsen


In the final processing of the sound, he uses the facets of mining as different sound tracks.
└ from 27 — BJ Nilsen


This line is interrupted a few times and the different time periods work together and overlap.
└ from 27 — BJ Nilsen


Thus, different layers of time are presented, from slowly unfolding sounds that represent a deep geological time, to sounds of transport, to the kind of sounds that we recognise as science fiction to indicate the future.
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For example, mining is in the arctic zone, and an asteroid mining law was adopted in Luxembourg in 2017 that gives companies ownership of what they extract from celestial bodies.
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Of course, it only becomes interesting when the resources on earth are exhausted.
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For example, in the composition radio broadcasts from space are used as well as a recoding of the probe that has ended up on an asteroid.
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In this way, the work creates a third space that belongs to the individual listener and that arises from the interaction between the original space and the imaginary space, created by the composition, the sound processing and the perception of the listener.
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Some of the recordings were finally mixed in the studios of GRM.
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Magnetic tape was the medium of BJ Nilsen's youth.
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He had hundreds of cassette tapes, like many at the time.
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It made him realise how closely he was actually involved in the process of iron ore, and how his development as an artist was shaped thanks to iron ore.
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We thought he would fit very well in the 'E-ARTHHA' event with Douglas Kahn that we were already busy with planning.
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Douglas Kahn is Professor of Media and Innovation at the National Institute of Experimental Arts (NIEA), University of New South Wales, Sydney, and Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Davis, where he was the Founding Director of Technocultural Studies.
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He is known primarily for his writings on the use of sound in the avant-garde and experimental arts and music, and history and theory of the media arts.
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His writings have also been influential in the scholarly area of sound studies and the practical area of sound art.
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His best known book, 'Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts', was published by MIT Press in 1999.
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He discards old categories of sound and performance and replaces them with a new category of 'energy' in the bigger narrative of ecology and other sensitivities.
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For this event, Kahn did some kind of improvisation session on the works of the three invited artists.
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Ore 'In ore different layers of time are overlapping, from the deep time of geology to the superfast time of our current economy and the future.
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For the record I used recordings from the iron ore processing plant in Kirkenes, both with the plant working and not working.
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When it was empty, I mapped out the building by recording it.
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You hear the room tones, pigeons flying around, doors flapping and the sound of the town blending in.
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I used recordings from Pasvik, south of Kirkenes, where the rock is at least 2.9 billion years old.
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The north of Norway is one of the oldest rock formations in the world.
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It doesn't relate directly to mining, but it extends the project to include geology, deep time and stone.
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Those recordings symbolise the stasis of time.
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I made field recordings in the winter; you hear ice crystals cracking because there was a layer of ice on the snow.
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I also went to Näätämö/Neiden and just over the border to Finland because it’s land of the Sámi, and I wanted to have that in.
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Throughout the landscape there are sacred stones that are very important to them.
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I did the same with coal.
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I made recordings of the sound of striking coal at the house of Hilde Methi, a curator who lives in Kirkenes.
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There are recordings from the harbour of Murmansk with the coal trains coming in from Kuzbass in southwestern Siberia.
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The next phase in the processing of iron is represented by recordings from inside the Tata Steel factories in Wijk aan Zee, 30 kilometers from Amsterdam.
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I also visited Most in the Czech Republic because there is a huge operational open pit mine.
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It is a vast scar in the landscape, and really an incredible place.
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The recordings I did in the former mining region of the Netherlands are again more environmental: The mine near Heerlen has been developed into a park and nature area.
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I'm very interested in the hidden layers and history the landscape.
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That's why I wanted to have a thread about the regeneration of mining areas.
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I think it is important to explore the changes that the surrounding landscape and the mining site itself are undergoing, from active to closed, from contaminated landscape to re-vegetation.
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The future is represented through using radio emissions from space and a recoding from the probe that landed on the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.
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What I like about these recordings is that they already have been processed through the rock and soil and transposed into human hearing range...
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This mining work is tied directly to the computer age, itself an alchemic expression of man's ingenious use of the earth.
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Modernity is made by the manipulation and transmutation of organic and synthetic materials through design and research.
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Source: http://www.newcriticals.com/deep-mining-deep-time/page-3 Mineral commodities used in mobile devices: Gallium (from bauxite), Germanium (from sphalerite) Graphite Indium (from sphalerite) Lithium (from amblygonite, petalite, lepidolite and spodumene) Platinum Potassium (from langbeinite, sylvite and sylvinite) Rare-earth elements (like bastnäsite, loparite, monazite and xenotime) Sand Silicon (from quartz) Silver (from argentite and tetrahedrite) Tantalum (from columbite and tantalite) Tin (from cassiterite) Tungsten (from scheelite and wolframite) Source: https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/0167/gip167.pdf Chemical structure of the products of Sydvaranger mine, Kirkenes: Fe – 68% SiO2 – 5.00 Al2O3 – 0.30 S – 0.08 P – 0.01 Mn – 0.05 Na2O – 0.01 K2O – 0.03 CaO – 0.35 MgO – 0.45 H2O – 8.00 Size of the product: Over 0.15mm – less than 0.2% 0.053mm–0.15mm – less than 20% Under 0.053mm – up to 80% Source: http://sydvarangergruve.no/produkt 'In mining there are two types of waste.
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One is the waste you make to get to the ore.
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If you have a gold mine and the gold layer sits fifty metres below surface, you have to remove fifty metres of waste.
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The ore layer contains only a certain amount of the mineral that will bring you revenue.
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The ore goes to a processing plant and there you take out the tailings and the rest is the waste of your process.
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But the chronology is interrupted a couple of times, and the different time planes are cut-up; they interact and overlap, because I mix sound recordings that were done at different times.
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In that way I present different layers of time, from slowly unfolding sounds that represent deep geological time, to sounds of transport, to the sort of sounds we recognise as science fiction to denote the future.
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The work creates a third space that belongs to the individual listener and which arises from the interaction between the original space and imaginary space, created through the composition and sound processing… We dig deep into the earth to get to layers of deep time, extract it and use the ancient material, in the case of coal, for electricity, for heating the house, commodities, to type a message on a phone.
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It's not like wind or the sun, which give you immediate energy.
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This ungraspable void of deep time fascinates me: The time compressed in iron ore, the coal that started billions of years ago as organic material, the gold flecked asteroid far away in space, or the more recent 'slambanken' in Kirkenes – a manmade landscape of unusable slag that might be mined in the future .
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We trace out all the veins of the earth, and yet, living upon it, undermined as it is beneath our feet, are astonished that it should occasionally cleave asunder or tremble: As though, forsooth, these signs could be any other than expressions of the indignation felt by our sacred parent!
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Pliny the Elder, 'Naturalis Historia, book XXXIII', p. 77, data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0978.phi001.perseus-eng1:33.1 'If, as Novalis and many of his friends believed, stones, metals and rock strata amount to transcriptions of the earth's history, what better place to study that history than in the mines and caverns of the earth, where the entire record is preserved and exposed?
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At this point the ancient conception of mines and mountain caverns as places of lapidary activity encounters a second folkoristic notion – that in the interior of mountains time stands still.
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The slambanken is a totally artificial, man-made landscape that has formed because the waste of the iron ore processing was flushed into the fjord.
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It is a base of hard rock under the water with different layers of material.
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We did a study and tried to identify how thick the layer was in different areas.
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We took samples and ran them through the laboratory in order to identify how many tons of final concentrate we would be able to get out of the slambanken.
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When they were cleaning the old silos they flushed everything out into the slambanken.
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Interview with Ylva Ståhl and Kristoffer Johansson from the Sydvaranger mine in Kirkenes, by Benny Nilsen, Hilde Methi and Annette Wolfsberger, conducted in March 2018.
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You cannot talk about mining in the North without getting into the question of what it means for the landscape, for the people and the animals living there, for the communities and the relations between all these.
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The sound of the mine was always present.
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When the mill was in full operation the only time when we woke up in the night was when the train was not going.
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We were living quite close to the railway, so when the train did not run we knew instantaneously that something had happened, either in the mine or in the mill.
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Interview with Ylva Ståhl and Kristoffer Johansson from the Sydvaranger mine in Kirkenes, by Benny Nilsen, Hilde Methi and Annette Wolfsberger, conducted in March 2018.
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I am drawn to the Arctic as a sound person because of its relative remoteness.
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Except for the mining, but that then is also why I find mining in the Arctic especially interesting.
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The relentless nature in the Arctic constantly reminds you that you are a human being and that you are not really supposed to be there because the harshness of the environment might kill you.
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It's good for the human psyche to be reminded of that.
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The people in the Arctic have a lot of respect for nature, it forms them .
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If it goes on like it goes now, the ice will open up and it will not be so desolate anymore.
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What shifts happened in the past?
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Why did people in the past settle in an environment like this?
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Far down in the Earth the rock is actually moving.
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Workers hear the rock talk, it crackles, it makes sounds, spits slivers.
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These can be an indicator that something is about to happen, the sounds tell something about the stability of the rock.
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Listening underground is like reading the environment.
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Geologists read the stone, but they also listen to it.
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By physically interacting with the stone you can determine what material it is.
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Geologists use seismic soundings to map out the resources in the earth.
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They put geophones in an array, and record the blast of a detonation underground.
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In practice it's quite mathematical, but it still it is part of the sound world too.
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There is a little homage to GRM and Pierre Schaeffer on the record.
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For me it relates directly to iron ore in so far that the type of musique concrète and tape music developed at GRM was made possible by magnetic tape.
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I mixed part of the recording in the GRM studios in Paris where I was working on another acousmatic piece.
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Magnetic tape was the medium of my youth.
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It made me recognise again how close we are to the source of ore, and how my development as an artist was shaped by iron ore.' 'The iron ore is refined and filtered, making sure the pure magnetite comes out.
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Only a small percentage of the ore is iron, the rest is slag and waste.
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All to get to the desired result: The gold!
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Black Moon by John Duncan Black Moon is composed of shortwave radio signals, recorded via the online receiver website of the Technical University of Enschede.
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Each signal was chosen for the resonance it evokes in the listener, later interwoven with other signals recorded from the same source for several days.
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The selection of sounds is done according to properties that lie outside the predictable controllable parameters in order to arrive at a complex multidimensional listening experience.
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By compactly interweaving the frequencies, a different image is created for the listener at each listening session because of the psycho-acoustic selections that take place at the level of the listener.
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The record can thus be considered as a potential composition, which is performed by the listener themselves through the aforementioned process.
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His background in performance and his multimedia and confrontational approach gives him full credits to be part of the DE PLAYER programme.
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The fact that the sound on the record is an ever-changing piece – because of the psycho acoustic effects – transposes it more into a tool than a static recording.
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This approach can also be seen in the Electronic Voice Phenomena (EVP) of Friedrich Jürgenson, a researcher who claimed to have detected voices of the dead hidden in radio static.
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John Duncan has been active for decades at the cutting edge of performances, video, experimental music, installation, pirate radio and television.
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He has played a central role in the development of performing arts in Los Angeles, experimental music as a member of LAFMS, Japanese noise and pirate radio in Tokyo.
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He is currently a sound designer at the Art Academy of Bologna, Italy.
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Since the beginning of his practice, he has made extensive use of recorded sound.
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In the mid-1980s Duncan began pirate radio and television broadcasting with his own custom-built portable channels, operating illegally from the roofs of apartment buildings in central Tokyo and from an abandoned American military hospital near Sagamihara.
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The publication 'Black Moon' (DOB 096) is composed of shortwave radio signals, recorded via the online receiver website of the Technical University of Enschede.
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He has a particular interest in the abstruse technological condition we are living in and the insufficient intellectual methodologies that seek to justify, or explain it.
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During the presentation of Pushing Scores he will utilize the spatial dimensions of Varia and recontextualize the scores created by the archive.
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In an ongoing performance unexpected correlations will be produced between the items in the archive and the physical surroundings in which they are represented.
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We know Varia as a community based initiative which combines several knowledge bases in the interdisciplinary filed of music, programming, publishing, hacking, social interventions and critical positions, among others.
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It is based in Rotterdam in the same area that we operate in.
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We already knew some of its members and thought it would be nice and effective to approach them with a question of doing something with the archive of 'Pushing Scores'.
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Instead of making a paintwork publication, we wanted it to be more adventurous and in line with the concept of the project.
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The idea is that this material will be embodied by a dynamic, accessible and therefore active archive, which creates new relations, new perspectives and, at its best, new concepts for the production and/or processes of making scores.
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During an evening at the Varia collective, where Valentia Vuksic and Ana Guedes also played a live set and explained their work and backgrounds, Niek Hilkmann, who is part of the Varia team, presented his Universal Notation Ideal (UNI) – a Pay2Print research into the simultaneous production and distribution of standardised graphic scores by means of an automatic machine.
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The actual printing of the thermal paper is a stochastic performance in itself.
└ from 29 — Niek Hilkmann


By emphasising this aspect of the machine as a musical entrepreneur earning his own income, the conditions of mechanised labour within the cultural industry, and its associated ethics, are investigated within this project.
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On the spot, the audience could activate the UNI.
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Black MIDI' is a music genre consisting of compositions that use MIDI files to create song remixes containing a large number of notes, typically in the thousands or millions, and sometimes billions.
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DE PLAYER has always had a strong interest in emancipating publishing from its stereotypical understanding as merely making things public – an understanding that comes from an historical and economic media constraint linked to the print, software, music and film industries, and that has limited any form of meaningful, explorative, complementary or conflictual combinations between media in the field of cultural production.
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Transformation of information is a fact that occurs during the process of composing and performing the compositions.
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This is an interesting process in which boundaries can be explored and in which the idea of 'cracked media' – whose performers challenge the intended effect of the technology and actively use alternative acts through subversive acts of abuse and misconception to generate results – is an interesting one.
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Though the two are unrelated in origin, the concept of impossible piano existed long before black MIDI, manifesting itself within Conlon Nancarrow's work involving player pianos, where he punched holes in piano cards to create extremely complex musical compositions in the same impossible, unplayable spirit of black MIDI.
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Owen Was Her?’, an extra boss theme from the Touhou Project shooter video game 'The Embodiment of Scarlet Devil’.
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It was uploaded to the site ‘Nico Nico Douga’ in 2009, and public awareness of black MIDI started to spread from Japan to China and Korea over the following two years.
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In its beginning years, black MIDIs were represented visually with traditional two-stave piano sheet music, and contained a number of notes only in the thousands.
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The black MIDI community in Japan vanished quickly because, according to Jason Nguyen (owner of the channel 'Gingeas'), the group was 'analogous to those TV shows where there’s a mysterious founder of a civilisation that is not really known throughout the course of the show.
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The popularity of black MIDI transitioned into Europe and the United States due to a video of a composition uploaded by Kakakakaito1998 in February 2011.
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Shortly thereafter, blackers from around the world began pushing limits of the style by making compositions with notes increasing into the millions and using an enormous number of colours and patterns to match the complexity of the notes.
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They also formed the sites 'Guide to Black MIDI' and 'Official Black MIDI Wikia', which introduced and set the norm of black MIDI.
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The first of these tracks to reach the million-note mark was that of 'Necrofantasia' from the Touhou Project video game 'Perfect Cherry Blossom', arranged by TheTrustedComputer.
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The end titles of many black MIDI videos display how many notes are in the piece.
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The number of notes and the sizes of the playback files have grown with the rising amount of processing and 64-bit programs, which computers are now able to handle.
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While black MIDIs of Japanese video game music and anime are still common, the genre has also begun spilling into modern-day pop songs, such as 'Wrecking Ball' by Miley Cyrus.
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The two largest black MIDIs are 'Armageddon v3' and 'TheTrueEnd', both of which contain the maximum number of notes allowed in the MIDI standard (about ninty-three trillion).
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Due to the nature of their creation and their sheer size, they are unable to be played back and recorded.
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English-language blackers have formed collaboration groups, such as the Black MIDI Team, where they make MIDI files and visuals together so they can be uploaded online sooner.
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Blackers around the world have used software such as Synthesia, FL Studio, SynthFont, Virtual MIDI Piano Keyboard, Piano From Above, MIDITrail, vanBasco Karaoke Player, MIDIPlayer (Java program), MAMPlayer, Music Studio Producer, Singer Song Writer, Tom's MIDI Player, TMIDI and Timidity++ to create black MIDIs.
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Some of them, like Jason, record the MIDI files at a slow tempo and then speed up the footage in video editing to avoid RAM and processing issues.
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The term 'black MIDI' is derived from how there are so many notes in each piece that the score would look nearly black (or would look really black) when transposed to the form of traditional sheet music.
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According to California-based blacker TheTrustedComputer, black MIDI was intended as more of a remix style than an actual genre, and derived from the idea of 'bullet hell' shoot 'em up games, which involved 'so many bullets at a time your eyes can't keep up.
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Black MIDI has also been considered the digital equivalent, as well as a response to composer Conlon Nancarrow's use of the player piano, which also involved experimenting with several thick notes to compose intricate pieces without hands.
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Black MIDI first received coverage by Michael Connor, a writer for the non-profit arts organisation Rhizome, in September 2013, leading to attention from publications and bloggers including 'Aux', 'Gawker's Adrian Chen', 'Jason Kottke' and 'The Verge'.
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It has garnered acclaim from journalists, bloggers and electronic musicians, with many noting it as a distinctive and engaging genre thanks to how regular piano notes are combined to make new, abstract sounds not heard in many styles of music, as well as the visuals representing the notes.
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Hackaday's Elliot Williams spotlighted the style as ironic, given that the fast-paced arpeggios and 'splatter-chords', developed with a restricted number of voices, come together to make other tones that lead to a piano sounding more like a chiptune and less like an actual piano.
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Spectral Arrows by Marco Fusinato (live recordings by Gerben Kokmeijer, edited by Marco Fusinato) Stuttering live concrete, wailing feedback, Xenakis-esque swarms of descending glissandi, abusive guitar wrangling, walls of harsh static on a double sided black vinyl containing edited sound from the live recording of Marco Fusinato's endurance performance 'Spectral Arrows' for DE PLAYER on 18 May 2013 at Groothandelsgebouw, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
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In 'Spectral Arrows', Fusinato arrives at the venue when it opens for business, sets up his equipment facing a wall and proceeds to play for the whole day until the end of business hours.
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Fusinato presents himself here in the guise of a worker, clocking on and unceremoniously clocking off at the end of the day, refusing to allow the behind-the-scenes mystery of rehearsals and preparations to lend an aura to the performance, and affirming the deskilled ethos of his work.
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For the audience, the length of the performance frustrates the expectation of a manageable form, forcing all but the hardiest audience members to find contentment with only a fragment of the whole.
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Even for those who stick it out, the extended duration, like in the late works of Morton Feldman, destroys the listener's ability to retain and assess the structure of the performance.
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Breaking with both the traditional form of the musical performance and, through Fusinato’s resolutely antisocial position facing away from the audience, the standard affective relationship between audience and performer is broken.
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The sound of 'Spectral Arrows' becomes a monumental aural sculpture, filling the space, not with steel or concrete, but with vibrations travelling through air.
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For the release event only John Nixon could be present, as Julian unfortunately died at young age and Marco was primarily active as a visual artist.
└ from 31 — Marco Fusinato


In this project, he appropriates scores of avant-garde composers and connects each note with one arbitrary point on the horizon.
└ from 31 — Marco Fusinato


This creates strong graphic works and partly blackens out the original score.
└ from 31 — Marco Fusinato


As most of his work engages with highly political issues, we invited him to do a performance within the context of the event 'MUSIC & CAPITALISM'.
└ from 31 — Marco Fusinato


Where people would normally be doing their office work, Marco now played for eight hours in the empty office building.
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People were guided to the eighth floor and into the directors room, which was darkened with newspapers stacked on the windows.
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A huge public announcement system was in the office blazing loud, but very articulated sound.
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Marco Fusinato is a contemporary artist and musician whose work has taken the form of installation, photographic reproduction, performance and recording.
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His overall aesthetic project combines allegorical appropriation with an interest in the intensity of a gesture or event.
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As a musician, Fusinato explores the notion of noise as music, using the electric guitar and associated electronics to improvise intricate, wide-ranging and physically affecting frequencies.
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Serial in form, each work uses an existing cultural document – a twentieth or twenty-first century avant-garde music score – as the formal, material and conceptual basis for a set of actions or interventions.
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Specifically, working with facsimile sheets of the score, Fusinato draws lines from each note on the page to one chosen point.
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Where a composition comprises more than one sheet, these are then singularly framed and installed sequentially on the gallery wall, creating an extraordinary graphic rendering of the energy of aural compression and expansion.
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In these works, treated by Fusinato as propositions for new noise compositions, the qualities of each individual note and their relation to those around them are effectively compressed into a single point of intense concentration.
└ from 31 — Marco Fusinato


This is the energy of implosion, which always infers at least the potential of its counter-energy in explosive energy radiating out from the single point of origin.
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Fusinato's intervention into the scores therefore visualises and proposes the possibility of a dialectical energy running through the original work that has a political dimension as much as an artistic one – a relentless propensity to both destruction and expressive creation in the single action, or, in this case, to the production of noise.
└ from 31 — Marco Fusinato


a b o u t t h i s a r c h i v e
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G e n e r a t e s c o r e !